How to cure sore throat

Colds, the flu, and other viral infections
Viruses cause about 90 percent of sore throats (2). Among the viruses that cause sore throats are:

the common cold
influenza — the flu

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mononucleosis, an infectious disease that’s transmitted through saliva
measles, an illness that causes a rash and fever
chickenpox, an infection that causes a fever and an itchy, bumpy rash
mumps, an infection that causes swelling of the salivary glands in the neck
2. Strep throat and other bacterial infections
Bacterial infections can also cause sore throats. The most common one is strep throat, an infection of the throat and tonsils caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria.

Strep throat causes nearly 40 percent of sore throat cases in children (3). Tonsillitis, and sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea and chlamydia can also cause a sore throat.

3. Allergies

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When the immune system reacts to allergy triggers like pollen, grass, and pet dander, it releases chemicals that cause symptoms like nasal congestion, watery eyes, sneezing, and throat irritation.

Excess mucus in the nose can drip down the back of the throat. This is called postnasal drip and can irritate the throat.

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4. Dry air
Dry air can suck moisture from the mouth and throat, and leave them feeling dry and scratchy. The air is most likely dry in the winter months when the heater is running.

5. Smoke, chemicals, and other irritants
Many different chemicals and other substances in the environment irritate the throat, including:

cigarette and other tobacco smoke
air pollution
cleaning products and other chemicals

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After September 11, more than 62 percent of responding firefighters reported frequent sore throats. Only 3.2 percent had had sore throats before the World Trade Center disaster (4).

6. Injury
Any injury, such as a hit or cut to the neck, can cause pain in the throat. Getting a piece of food stuck in your throat can also irritate it.

Repeated use strains the vocal cords and muscles in the throat. You can get a sore throat after yelling, talking loudly, or singing for a long period of time. Sore throats are a common complaint among fitness instructors and teachers, who often have to yell (4).

7. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which acid from the stomach backs up into the esophagus — the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach.

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The acid burns the esophagus and throat, causing symptoms like heartburn and acid reflux — the regurgitation of acid into your throat.

8. Tumor
A tumor of the throat, voice box, or tongue is a less common cause of a sore throat. When a sore throat is a sign of cancer, it doesn’t go away after a few days.

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Styes on upper eyelid

A sty is a localized infection with inflammation of the eyelid margin, usually involving eyelash hair follicles or eyelid glands (meibomian glands). A sty (also spelled stye and also termed a hordeolum) is usually a painful, reddish, and swollen area on the eyelid margin and is caused most often by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (about 90%-95% of cases).

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Is a sty contagious?
There is some disagreement among experts about the contagiousness of a sty. In most individuals, a sty develops when some normal occurring and/or transient bacteria multiply in the eyelid margin. Because these bacteria are not necessarily transferred from one person to another, some investigators consider a sty to be noncontagious. Others, however, feel that if another person contacts the causative bacterium and they touched their eyes, it is possible to transfer the infection, but this happens very infrequently; nonetheless, these experts consider this to be a contagious disease. The compromise position would be that, in most instances, a sty is not contagious unless certain circumstances are met, such as touching a sty and then transferring the causative organism to another person, where it may or may not cause a sty or other infection to develop.

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How will I know if I have a sty?
Most people know when they develop a sty because of the symptoms and signs that are as follows:

A red lump or bump begins to occur on an eyelid margin that resembles a boil or a pimple.
Almost always there will be eyelid discomfort or pain.
Some individuals will develop eyelid swelling.
Some individuals will have increased tear formation.
Sometimes a sty is confused with a chalazion, which is a blockage of a small oil gland behind the eyelashes. It differs from a sty because it is usually not painful and is most prominent on the inner side of the eyelid. However, the treatment for both conditions is essentially the same.

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Most doctors diagnose a sty simply by observation; no tests are needed.
Sty Risk Factors
Foreign substances, such as makeup and dust, can clog the gland’s opening if they are not properly washed away. Infections, burns, or trauma resulting in scar tissue can also prevent the glands from properly draining. Sluggish outflow of the sebum (oil) from the meibomian glands is commonly seen in a chronic inflammatory condition called meibomian gland dysfunction (also called meibomitis).

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How is a sty spread?
Most of the time a sty is not spread from person to person except under unusual circumstances. However, in the same person, the infection responsible for a sty can spread to other areas of the eyelid and eventually to other components in the eye to produce an emergency condition termed orbital cellulitis. This type of spread of a sty is very infrequent.

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When will I know I am cured of a sty?
The majority of people who get a sty usually see it resolve in about seven days; the symptoms gradually disappear. Also, many people self-treat by utilizing warm compresses that eventually cause the sty to discharge or drain a small amount of pus. This simple treatment can hasten recovery. However, people who develop a sty are more likely to form another one in the future. There are no tests indicated for diagnosis of a sty.